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 The Vietnamese Dominican Sisters of St. Catherine of Sienna trace our foundation to the endeavors of the Dominican Friars of the Most Holy Rosary Province (the Philippines) in the 18th century. According to Fr. Angelo Walz, the first Dominican House in Trung Linh, Bui Chu (in north Vietnam) was founded by Fr. Bustamante in 1715. This center, called "Nha Phuoc" (the Blessing House), indicated that women who lived in this house practiced virtues and performed charitable deeds. From 1757 onward, the Dominican Friars established many "Nha Phuoc's" in their parishes. These communities of women were independent organizations who made private vows and observed the Rule of the Third Order of Penance of St. Dominic (Dong Ba Ham Minh-Thanh Daminh).

In the 20th century, the Holy See directed all the "Nha Phuoc's" to be reorganized according to the norms of the 1917 Code of Canon Law. Bishop Peter Pham Ngoc Chi of the Diocese of Bui Chu reorganized the Vietnamese Dominican Sisters from seven "Nha Phuoc's" into one religious congregation. On March 21, 1951, by a decree of the Congregation of the Propagation of the Faith, the first congregation of the Vietnamese Dominican Sisters of St. Catherine of Siena was officially established in Bui Chu. In the years that followed, several congregations of Vietnamese Dominican Sisters were established in various dioceses of northern Vietnam, such as the dioceses of Hai Phong, Bac Ninh, Lang Son and Thai Binh.

The Geneva Conference of July 20, 1954 partitioned the country into the communist north and non-communist south; as a result, most communities of the Sisters joined the massive refugee trek southward. On April 10, 1956, the Congregation for the Propagation ofthe Faith granted permission for the Vietnamese Dominican Sisters to establish new communities in the south using the Constitution of the Congregation of Bui Chu, and to operate a common noviatite at Ho Nai, Bien Hoa. The Ordinaries chose Thanh Tam-Ho Nai as the Center of Formation for the Sisters. In April of 1956, approximately 83 members from various "Nha Phuoc's" received their first Dominican habits as novices and postulants. On January 21, 1958, the second Congregation of the Vietnamese Dominican Sisters of St. Catherine of Siena was erected through the support of Bishop Simon Hoa Nguyen Van Hien of Saigon. The Mother House was constructed at Thanh Tam-Ho Nai, Bien Hoa under the Bishop Simon Hoa's jurisdiction.

Several months later, the Vicar of Bui Chu and of Lang Son withdrew their novices and postulants from the Mother House in Ho Nai. A third congregation was formed at Lang Son that was independent of the previous two congregations. Efforts to unite the three congregations of Lang Son, Bui Chu and Ho Nai were unsuccessful. On January 1, 1973, three groups of sisters from the Hai Phong, Thai Binh and Bac Ninh Dioceses decided to form their own congregations with the intention of observing and preserving their own traditions, origins, and carrying out their missionary endeavors without hindrance. These three groups of sisters became known as the Dominican Sisters of St. Rose of Lima at Thu Duc.

The fall of Saigon in 1975 resulted in the seizure of schools, centers for social services and the formation houses of the Vietnamese Dominican Sisters by the communist authorities. The Sisters survived by working on local farms and their religious lifestyle had to be adjusted to the harsh living conditions. Many sisters lost their lives under such conditions, while others returned to their families. Improved conditions in the 1990s allowed the Sisters to rebuild their communities and gain new members. By the year 2000, there were twelve convents in the Dong Nai, Ba Ria and Ho Chi Minh City Province totalling 142 sisters with perpetual vows, 41 with temporal vows, 23 novices, and 80 postulants. The postulancy and the novitiate house were reopened at the Mother House in Ho Nai. The sisters have established mission centers in Dong Lach (Dong Nai), Bao Ham (Dong Nai), Hon Dat (An Giang), and Ca Mau (Can Tho). Barred from running schools, the Sisters have turned to the parishes where they are engaged in catechetical, missionary, social, healthcare and other pastoral activities.